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    The honouring of the Greatest GodSKY-“TENGRI” (TANGRA, TANGYR etc) passing through the age of Huns, alsosaved in the contemporary Turkic nations, nationalities and tribes.

    For example, God’s name “TAYRI” of Karachays and Balkars isthe same calling “TENGRI” of (ancient) Kuman- Kypchaks that annoyedwith their raids to Slavic (East) Europe.

    Tuvinians (Tuva Turks) pronounced God’s name as “DAIR”(“DAER”), Kyrghyzs – TENGIR, Hakas (Abakan) Turks – TIGIR, Shor Tatars(in Siberia) – Tegri, (Saha) Yakuts – (TANGYR), TANGARA,
    Polinesian – TANGAROA, ancient Shumers – DINGIR, ancient (Donube)Bulgarians – TANGRA, Chuvashs – TURA (Chuvashs in Tatarstan – “DOORY”),Nogays – TANGRI, Kazan Tatars and Bashkirs – TANGRE, Altai Turks –TANARA, “Chelkan” Turks – TANGARA, Crimea Tatars and (Ankara andStambul) Turks – TANRY, Azerbaijanians – TAN(G)RY, Turkmens – TANGRY,Uzbeks – TANGRI, Karaims – TARY etc (“ Kachin”, “Beltir” and “Sagay”Turks – TIGIR, TEGIR and TENGIR).
    Shamans in Nepal was called as “DANGRE”; women-shamans in (ancient) Korea was called as “TANGORI”.

    The word “TANGARA” and its variants is the first (oldest) word in the world that was found by linguists.
    The Head God of Turkic pantheon, that was called “ULLU” (“OOLLOO”)TAYRI by Balkars and Karachays, lead all lifes course, sent happiness,troubles, affictions and punishments, controled the weather, thunder,lightning, wind and rain, provided with good crop, good litter ofcattle.

    The ancestors of Kazan Tatars believed in dependence of Head (Main) TANGRE were sixteen gods (tengre’s).

    Sheep, horses and other animals were sacrified in the honour of the Sky.
    It was accompanied by drinking of koumiss, ayran, milk and meet broth (“shulpa”, “shorpa”, “chorba”).

    Some of Turk-shamanists: Tuvinians, Altais, Beltirs andKachin Turks – even in the beginning of twentieth century prays for thehonour of the Sky.

    Turks (from Siberia to the Caucasus) called the rainbow as “belt ofthe Sky”, “belt of Tangre”, “Tangre’s bow (arch)”, “sword of Tangre”.
    Karachays and Balkars having seen the first spring rainbow prayed and asked ( entreated) for prosperity, well-being.

    Ancient Turks, Tuvinians, Shor Tatars, Altai Turks, Hakas Turkshonoured sacred mountains. For example, Tuvinians honoured mountainsrange “OTUKEN” ( in the upper Yenisey river) as a feminine God(Goddess) ; possible, it follows from Turkic Matriarchy.

    Ancient Turks of the Second Hakanate considered “OTUKEN” asMotherland and Patroness, that is why political center was in “OTUKEN”.

    Tien Shan mountain with height 6996 m. was called by Salars and Uigurs as “Han-Tangre”.

    The name of Japan spirit of mountains and forests “Tangu” was connected with ancient Turkic, Altai and Hun origin.

    Bolgarian scientist A.O.Stoynev created characteristic ofGreat God of the first ( ancient) Donube Bulgarians: “ TANGRA wasbelieved as invisible, male God, having atributes of Sky, Sun, Eagle,Horse; functions: military, economic-creative, yuridical (Justice,human’s destiny possess, patronage, frightening, punishing, rewarding),in the full sense religious. According to ancient Bulgarians, even thecolour of TANGRA (blue, white, and light) had the function of saving”.( Look the book in Russian language “ Волжская Булгария: духовнаякультура. Домонгольский период 10 – начала 13 веков», Казань(Kazan),1990, стр 58-59).

    The God “Yir – Su” ( The Ground and Water) was also honoured by ancient Turks.
    “UMAY” (“OOMAY”,”YMAY”,”MAY”) is Goddess that mentioned in the ancientTurkic (runic letters) stones. UMAY was a Patroness of children,new-born children, pregnant women, the Goddess of fertility.
    Umay has been respected up to now by shamanists of Altai.
    Kyrghyzs of the Middle Asia considered the child with birth-mark happy, because birth-mark is UMAY’s imprint.

    In honour to Turkic leader Tonyukuk appeared (stone) inscription:“The SKY – TANGRE, the Goddess UMAY, the sacred “YER–SU”(Motherland) –They gifted us victory.”

    Shamans of Hakases, Teleuts applying to UMAY, called Her as a Fire.The Fire cult of Kyrghyzs mixed with the cult of children’s PatronessUMAY. The expression-wish “Help of Mother UMAY to you!” was kept byKyrghyzs to this day.

    The archaeological matearials: sights on the dishs in views of thecross, swastika, rhomb etc. witnessed about wide spreading of theFire’s cult.

    By the by, the views of cross, swastika, rhomb etc may be met onthe (clothes) patterns and towels of Mishar-Tatars, Chuvashs andBashkirs.
    (This is Ayrat GALIMZYANOV’s matter).

    Learning the culture and way of life of nomads(Kuman-Kypchaks) of South- Eastern Europe of 8-9 centures, Russianscientist-author S.A.PLETNEVA distinguish whole row of pagan amulets,reflecting their way of life. Besides, its specially interestingconnected with cult of TANGRE and SUN. By the way, the gates of rural(village) yards of Kazan Tatars often decorated symbolic representationof Sun.

    One of the more spread types of amulets of Balkars andKarachays’s ancestors is a round with four staight rays, representingone of the variant of very spread in the ancient ages figures of theFire-Sun-Cross in the round!

    This ancient symbol of Fire-Sun was one of favorite motivein the native ornament of Karachays and Balkars, in the felt “kiyiz”s(carpet-rugs), on the (felt) head-dresses, on the “bashlyk”s.
    It is interesting to note round with 4 crossing rays in the subject ofrock pictures of 16-17 cent. in the upper Tyzyl river in Baksan canyon.

    M.M.KOVALEVSKI mentioned there was the eldest oath ofBalkars: “They drew round with edge of stick in the ground, thencriss-cross inside in two lines, stood in the middle of it and made anoath. They called it “K’ach” (cross)”.

    This magic picture connected with one of the ancient curse of Karachays and Balkars “Tayri ursun!”, “Tangri strike (you)!”

    The same curse Tatars of Crimea said so “Tanry ursun sizni!”, “Tangri strike you!”
    There was ancient tradition of all groups of Siberias Tatars – the fire(“uchak”, “ogak”) honouring, for example the spitting on the fire placewas forbiddenly, also fire was as cleaning remedy, that’s why jumpedthrough (over) the fire.

    Gagauzs (in Moldavia and Gagauz Yeri), Altai Turks,Chuvashs, ancient Bulgars, Kumiks and other Turkic peoples diddifferent magic rites during the first thunderstorm.

    Balkars and Karachays as other Turks burned the big fires and jumped through its.
    The honouring of lightning of Crimea Tatars was expressed in playing around the fire and jumping through (over) the fire.
    During the summer holiday “Tigir taii” (in Hakassia) Beltirs andKachins, that was accompanied by sacrificing of sheps; on the mountainsnear the sacred birchs burned two big fires and one of its had beensplashed with few drops of "“raka"”(“arak'y’, “raky), that was drinkedthere.
    Women were’nt permitted at this holiday in the popular beliefs and traditions we could see the honouring Water/
    Altai Turks, for example, believed that there was the Spirit (Master, Host) of Water,”Sou Aezie”.
    The horse was sacrified in his (“Sou-Aezie”) honour.
    Crimea Tatars did’nt take water from the well when the night come.(Itis their custom). If the situation was critical they asked from Spiritof Water permission. Crimea Tatars also believed in Mother ofWater,”Suv Anasy”;Balkars called Her “Suu Anasy”, Kazan Tatars – “SuAnasy” etc.
    Great poet of Kazan Tatars Gabdullah Tukay writed the poem about “SuAnasy”.So for the notion about “UMAY” had been keeping in the memory ofSiberian Tatars.

    In the world out look of Siberian Tatars “UMAY” was thespirit’s beginning being inside human and keeping his physical andspiritual forces; Shor Tatars and Tobol (Tobolsk) Tatars identifiedUMAY wich: 1). Mother’s womb, 2). Name of Goddess.
    Tar Tatars (in Siberia) believed that UMAY’s being inside the human’s body during the whole life.
    To “Kumandin” Turks (in Altai) mind UMAY was engendered in Mother’swomb and save him(human) during his life.(This is Ayrat GALIMZYANOV’smatter. This matter in Russian language You can find:http:\\ayratgalim.narod.ru).

    Beltirs of Askiz region (of Hakasia) used the word “UMAY” in themeaning of soul of child till three years old it is intresting thatfamilies of Japanese don’t pay attention to child’s behavior till threeyears old and when he is three they begin teach (instruction) andbringing-up their child and before he was three (years) it (=”UMAY”)was called “KUT”.

    In the prayings of Altai shamans “KUT” was as Spirit. To thepoint, contacts (intercourse) with Spirits (“kamlaniye” in Russianlanguage) in Korean medicine (shamanism) was called “KUT”!

    There is notion “Kut” in the languages of Kazakhs, Bashkirs and Kazan Tatars.
    In the idea of Tuvinians the “Kut” was in the meaning of life creatingforce, but (Saha) Yakuts believed in the “Kut” living one of thehuman’s souls.

    Telengits and Siberian Tatars saved the believing in thepursueing force anccient Turk’s Spirit “Natigai”(“Natsagai”) (may be,this word came of words “ANA”(Mother) TANGRE”), that appeared in theview of zigzag lightning and accompanied with strong thunder.
    Marco Polo reported that (Kumans) Kypchaks also believed in the “NATIGAI”.
    The magic of Turcic peoples was connected with plants, trees.

    Kazan (and region of Volga-river’s basin) Tatars, SiberianTatars and Altaai Turrks believed that rowan-tree (mountain ash) andjuniper had a magic force.
    The sacred trees of Siberian Tatars werehigh birch-trees and pine-trees, high lone pine-trees and wildpear-trees were sacred trees of Karachay-Balkar people.

    In North Daghestan not far from Varochan, the ancient capital ofHuns, was enormous oak-tree, that was honoureed by them(Huns) aspersonified Tangre; by the way American Indeans honoured oak-tree too.

    Siberian Tatars as American Indians kept totemism that’s why amongthe kins of Siberian Tatars there were “ayu tuhum”(“the bear kin”),“torna tuhum”(“the crane kin”), “akkosh tuhum”(“the swan kin”) etc.
    Yakuts believed that swan was sacred bird, and totemical cult of bearwas so in the peoples of Yakuts, Shor Tatars, Telengits, Tuvinians,Hakas and Altai tribes.
    Siberian Tatars against the ills, evil spirits, lightnings and thundersweared amulets of bear’s fangs and claws, beaty and health of the girlssaved with ribbone sand beads of different colours; against the evileye of children they draw the spot (blot) of soot to forehead.

    The amulets of Siberian Tatars often were blue coloured: forexample, sphericall glass buttons, crystals of (blue) copper vitriol,etc.
    Karachays against the curse (evil eye) to children sewed toswaddling clothes claws of wild animals (wolf, lynx), hedgehog’sneedles, bones of dog’s jaw, bright rags of stuff, mother-of-pearl etc.

    Before the putting child to the cradle, put there kitten or puppyfor doing child’s life happy. It was done with magical sense. In thehead of the bed-cradle hang the amulets (the claws of the wolf, the furof lynx, lop off the branches of sacred tree-hawthorn, biscuits(cookies) with picture of human’s arm, the bag with (inside) driedumbilical cord), and under head of the boy put knife or the scissorsunder head of the girl. The iron things put for devils not to kidnapthe child.

    The mother-in-law (husband’s mother) got (dipped) the fingerin the blood of sacrifice animal and draw the spot in the cheek ofchild.

    Different iron things, amulets of hedgehog’s needles, theclaws of the wolf and lynx, reptilian (snake’s) beads, (threaded)clove’s chains, shells (of “Kauri”), the (branch-line) stump ofrowan-tree with tree offshoots (the symbol of the Earth-tree), that(were hung) to cradle, - they all were amulets against evil eye.

    For protecting from evil eye: modeled lump of resin and stuck to thehair of child’s (around) crown (braid) plaited (from) wolf’s wool andwith drilled sheep’s bone and claws bound to the head of the cradle.
    If the child got ill of “water pox lupus”, they (Karachays) would treatit smearing with water out of the vessel where wolf’s bone was.
    (The getting) ill child was passed through the maw or under the skin(pelt) of the wolf; after that (rite) the bone of the (wolf’s) maw orthe piece of the (wolf’s) skin was hung on the cradle.
    Sometimes during the doing that rite they used (with wolf’s skin) thedrilled wolf’s bone (“alchik”); woman-shaman (while) doing that ritewas saying:” Aurungu, korkungu da ma bu alsyn”.(“Let that takes yourall ills and fears”).
    As for girls, there was a custom of pulling girls through the specialholes, that digged in the hills.(“djer koupur” in Karachay language).
    For annihilating an evil eye, Karachays were making their children tolook to flowing water (of Koban-river). This is water magic-medicine ofTengrism…

    So, Turks had faith in (unique) TANGRE, they had their own primondial religion, resembling to Japan’s SINTO religion.

    Ayrat Galimzyanov


    Man zaelt 40 tuerkische Nationalitaeten, Voelker und Sippen.
    Tuerken sind heute Moslemen Sunniten, Azerbaidzhaner – MoslemenSchiiten, Tuviner – Buddisten, Chakasen – Schamanisten, Karaimen –Judeen, Tataren-Krjaschenen – orthodoxe Christianen etc.
    Die Daten der Geschichte, Kultur und Mythologie zeugen davon, dassTuerken verschiedener Staemme in der Urzeit eine Religion – “Tengrism”(“Taengrianstvo”, “Taengrichilik”) hatten.
    Die Sprachwissenschaftler fanden heraus, dass das tuerkische Wort“Gott”(“Tangra”, “Taengri”, “Tengir” etc) das aelteste ist. Die Wurzelndieser ersten Religion “Tengrism” aelter sind, als es scheint. Tatarennannten den Gott Taengri, Turkmenen – Tangry, Balkaren und Karatschajen– Tejri, Tuviner – Daer, Tschuwaschen – Tury(Dury) usw.
    Das deutsche Wort “Donner” ist auch mit dem Himmel(Gott) verbunden!
    Bei Polinesiern, die neben Australien leben, klingt das Wort “Gott” als“Tagaroa”, bei Tuerken-Jakuten, die neben dem Eis meer leben –“Tangara”!
    Die Sitten und Brauche des Tengrismus bei Kasachen und Kirgisen sindden Sitten und Brauchen der Verehrung der Natur und Sintoismus derJapaner sehr aehnlich.

    Ayrat(“Eirad”) GALIMZYANOV, Kazan.


    В мире насчитывается сорок тюркских наций, народов и племен. Туркисейчас – мусульмане-сунниты, азербайджанцы – мусульмане-шииты, тувинцы– буддисты, хакасы – шаманисты, караимы – иудеи, татары-кряшены –православные христиане и т. д. Данные истории, культуры и мифологииговорят о том, что в древности тюрки разных племен имели одну религию –«Тенгризм» («Тэнгрианство», «Тэнгречелек») . Лингвисты выяснили, чтотюркское слово «Бог» («Тангра», «Тэнгри»,«Тенгир» и т. д.) – самоедревнейшее. Корни этой первой религии, «Тенгризма», древнее, чемкажется. Татары называли Бога «Тэнгри», туркмены – «Тангры», балкарцы икарачаевцы – «Тейри», тувинцы – «Дээр», чуваши – «Туры» («Дуры») и т.д. Немецкое слово «Доннер» сходно с понятиями «Небо», «Бог»! Уполинезийцев, живущих близко к Австралии, «Бог» звучит как «Тангароа»,у тюрков-якутов, живущих близко к Северному Ледовитому океану –«Тангара»! Обычаи Тенгризма у казахов и кыргызов очень похожи на обычаипочитания Природы и Синтоизм жителей Страны восходящего солнца.

    Айрат ГАЛИМЗЯНОВ, Казань


    Dans le monde il y a quarante peoples turque.
    Maintenant les turque sont les muslim-sunnites, les azerbaaijaaainesssont les muslim-chiiytes, les touviness ssont les buddistess, leshacasses sont les chamanistes, les caraimes sont les ioudees, lestatars-crachaines sont les christians ortodoxals etc.
    La linguistiquue, la mythologie et la culture donnent l’informaation dece que les turquee et d’autres peoples avaient une religion general autemps ancien. C’etait “LE TENGRISM”.
    Les linguists ont appris que le mot turque “le GOD” – “le TANGRA” (“TENGRIE” etc) est le plus ancien.
    Le “god” de polineseennes s’appelle “le TANGAROA”, le GOD deturque-jacoutes habitant pres de l’ocean du Nord s’appelle “leTANGARA”!


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